January - March 2013
Micro-RNA: new players in HIV-pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis and antiviral therapy
Retroviral Genetics Division, Center for Virus Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead Hospital, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
The role of small RNA (microRNA) as key regulators of gene and protein expression has been well established. Currently there is greater interest in these small RNA molecules because of their involvement in the regulation of a variety of animal and plant diseases, animal development, and physiology in addition to their critical role in a variety of cellular activities such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, morphogenesis, and differentiation. Overall, microRNA regulate gene and protein expression to control and guide decisions on the fate of cells. Given their stability in vivo and their importance in human diseases, microRNA are gaining increasing importance as new generation biomarkers for diagnostics and prognostics, along with becoming excellent therapeutic targets for treating human diseases. This review is focused largely on the role of microRNA in HIV infection. The main purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive perspective on host microRNA in the context of infection by HIV and other viruses, their effect on viral pathogenesis, along with providing insights into virally encoded microRNA that participate in the infectious process.
MicroRNA. HIV-1. Biological markers. Virus latency. Gene expression profiling.