January - March 2017
Similar Immunological Profiles Between Nonprogressing HIV Infection in Children and Nonpathogenic SIV Infection
Division of Clinical Virology, INIBIC-Complejo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña, Spain
In the absence of antirretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection leads to progression to AIDS in most infected individuals. However, there is a small group of HIV-infected patients capable of spontaneously controlling HIV infection, known as the elite controllers (less than 1% of total infected population). These patients maintain undetectable levels of HIV replication, in part, due to a continuously effective HIV specific T cell response. Moreover, in HIV-infected patients with suppressed viremia under ART, a chronic activation of the immune system persist, which can be related to a poor clinical outcome including death, development of co-morbidities, AIDS and non-AIDS defining events. Indeed, several studies highlight that a high level of immune activation rather than HIV replication is the major contributing factor to progression during HIV infection.